Jethro’s Nokota® Ruminations 1:2 Happy Thanksgiving, Timothy, and Black Friday Bypass

Consideration in the last issue of essential amino acids (and past articles can always be easily found on our blog: led to some questions about what is a good hay based diet, and that is such a profound & good question that i think needs to be broken down by grass species.  So let’s start with one of the most well known, sought after, and at least in some places premium priced, timothy.
Timothy has a long and proud history as hay, and if you have worked with a scythe and/or the traditional human muscle intensive hay drying methods you can understand in large part why.  It grows upright and straight in relatively fine clusters that do not form tight & high scythe blade destorying clumps like tuvtåtel, instead timothy plants cut rather cleanly and effortlessly with a scythe (or machinery), dry comparatively easily and well, and are more cooperative than many plants to collect with a rake and/or baler.  While continuing with its positive aspects, timothy is conducive to farming and crop rotations and establishes well with good planting and fertilizing techniques (including organic fertilizer which was of course the rule up until just a few generations ago) while also being effectively destroyed when desired via plowing because it has shallow roots that do not regenerate new crowns.  It is tolerant of  cold weather and native here in northern Sweden.  Plus timothy is one of the safer cool season grasses for horses at a high risk of founder, at least according to most sources and theories.,,
But even considering all of those benefits, i feel that i need to balance out the reputation of “king timothy”, the cornerstone of most haying programs here, and also write about its shortcomings, which certainly do not render it necessarily inferior but which should be always considered because timothy is definitely not the best option for every situation or every horse.  
Timothy grows and matures quickly, even in the far north, but the flip-side of this strength is that it also becomes overmature very quickly.  It has been recorded losing as much as 0.7% digestability per day after prime harvesting time, and thus in my experience it is not hard to find timothy hay that is rather deficient in useable protein and other nutrients.  It is true that horses evolved amid and are adapted to a “low octane” diet in comparison to cows, especially modern milk cows which are fed obscenely rich feeds and grasses developed to contain much more sugars and carbohydrates that typically found in nature, so this lower feed value of timothy is not always a disadvantage to a horse, as horses need much roughage/fiber for their systems to function properly, yet timothy’s feed value does need to be understood when trying to feed young, growing, high output, or elderly individuals or considering the “bang for your buck” of your next hay purchase. Mature timothy can be great if your plan is to let your gelding have free choice of a big round bale until it is gone because it will slow him down a bit, and a horse can eat much faster than it needs to, especially if bored, so even with overmature timothy an easy keeper with little to do could still grow fatter. Conversely, if you are feeding youngsters, as we are here, and rationing their feed over 3 to 5 feedings a day to limit wastage and spread out the consumption, and pay for the hay by the bale regardless of what it contains then you can quickly understand why we would prefer not to have overmature timothy hay; it is more work, cost, and waste for the same level of nourishment.
Furthermore, even though lush immature timothy plants can top 20% protein (and at this growth stage may also have a high amount of potentially worrisome for laminitis water soluble non-structural carbohydrates), timothy is a bit deficient in lysine relative to its total protein content.  The National Research Council has through much research decided that 4.3% of a horse’s dietary crude protein should be lysine​.  So since timothy has only 3% of its crude protein as lysine it is better balanced by combining with clover (5%) or other lycine rich plants (typically legumes) like vetch that are themselves richer than necessary in lysine.  Or you could always supplement lysine directly… or even just feed an excess of timothy in terms of energy and/or total protein to simply reach the lysine requirement if that is the cheapest option and there is no problem with weight gain.
A relatively easy online (and downloadable) program to calculate your horse’s specific needs, and even compare them to several feeds and calculated intake, is provided by the National Research Council at:   On the top blue horizontal tool bar select “Animal Specification”, then enter the weight and expected mature weight along with other details and you can quickly see that our harness mare, Grå Törnskata, for example should have 26 grams of lysine a day.  Saves a lot of time on the calculator, and you can do much more with this program if you wish 🙂  And below is another table that can be helpful when considering lysine, too:
Feed type Equation to estimate lysine from crude protein if actual lysine content is unknown:
Alfalfa hay Crude protein x .042
Clover hay Crude protein x .050
Timothy hay Crude protein x .030 (actually ranges from 2.9 – 4.1%
Bermuda grass hay Crude protein x .035
Bluegrass pasture Crude protein x .027
Oat hay Crude protein x .031
Corn silage Crude protein x .051
Returning to considerations of timothy, it is also relatively sensitive to overgrazing because it stores its reserves in the lower stems, well within reach of hungry mouths.  And please remember when reading about any species and following the links that the recommendations will vary greatly with your locale, especially dates for seeding, cutting, etc, seeding rates, and even nutritive properties.  For example, here in northern Sweden our days during the growing season are very, very long; on midsummer it never truly gets dark, just dusky.  Furthermore, the nights are characteristically cool, so photosynthesis can occur over very long portions of each “day” and the plant needs to waste little of this via respiration at “night”, thus plants can potentially concentrate much more sugar.  Our carrots, berries, potatoes, etc truly are sweeter than in most other places and likewise horses at high lattitudes are at a greater risk of founder/laminitis, particularly if allowed to graze modern grasses developed for milk cows without end when already fat and excercising little.  So if you hear food connosiurs claiming that the best berries come from close to the poles, they actually do have some facts behind them if sweet is what you seek.
So long story short, things are always more complicated than they seem and so there is a lot to consider, and typically hay mixtures are best, but timothy sure can be a great hay and a great choice for the majority of most equines’ diets, especially with a small amount of legume mixed in or fed at the same time.
Black Friday Bypass
Personally, one of the things i am most thankful for is an awesome home (and that means the entire farm) full of opportunities (aka Nokota horses and range for them), so i really am not keen to leave that for the hustle of town, especially not to partake in consumeristic chaos in the quest for holiday gifts.  So what better alternative than to order online gifts like the freshly printed 2014 Nokota calendar, artwork, stationary, sponsorships including the opportunity to name a young Nokota, clothing including sweatpants you can wear in comfort as you shop at home, etc 😉  The only thing better than avoiding the crowds and fuel pumps is the satisfaction of knowing that you are also helping to preserve deserving American heritage, as the Nokota Horse Conservancy is a non-profit organization with the proceeds helping to sustain its core herd of the most rare bloodlines of fully foundation Nokota horses.
Disclaimer:  There is always a strong chance that I don’t know what I am talking about, and these views are entirely my own and not in any way necessarily reflective of those of the Nokota® Horse Conservancy or any other individual.  Read widely, seek multiple opinions, and think freely 😀  I know that this will be read by many who are more wise, educated, and experienced in a multitude of ways than myself and look forward to their responses, even if they contradict me, so please do not hesitate!  Our blog is a great place to discuss further, and if you have a question it very well can be helpful to share, so please feel free to comment and share!

Jethro’s Nokota® Ruminations vol 1:1


Jethro, after the “Beverly Hillbillies” character, was an early nickname Frank and Leo gave me because of how I sprang all over their pastures euphorically identifying (and tasting) plants, papering horses, fixing fence, etc with an ear to ear grin.  So I chose “Jethro” for this newsletter because I want it to be obvious that what I write is totally and exclusively my own and although influenced by many certainly not meant to be presented as the view of any other.  I am a board member and jr. VP for the Nokota® Horse Conservancy and my goal is to help the Nokota® effort, as I am utterly convinced that this unique imperiled population has a heck of a lot to offer future generations, and a lot of what I will discuss here has been prompted by Nokota® questions and conversations, so please feel free to ask and inquire further but just remember this is just seth, nothing more 😉  My education was too expensive, and I don’t agree with hoarding and commoditizing knowledge, so my intent is to share some insight in the hopes that it can not only be fun, but hopefully save some resources in this crazy world (horses really are cheap keepers if we work with nature).  I try to avoid consumerism as much as possible, so I won’t try to sell you anything more than all things Nokota®, which I feel are one of the best investments a person can make and crucial to my sense of well-being 😀

Keeping in mind that this is just me, there will be grammatically errors for which I apologize.  And it is always best to get a second opinion on everything, so please consider my musings as meant to stir further investigation and certainly not to put the final nail in any coffins, I am definitely fallible!  In the interest of covering many relevant topics I prefer to research and write more over proofread a third time.

 Currently in the Nokota® World…

We will get around to Sweden, where things are well, in more detail later, but presently the bigger news is:

  1.  Seven fully foundation Nokotas®, including the 2 year old mare right, were imported to Denmark a month ago and are doing great!  Their new partners are Gerd and Nadin of, who have an equine tour business on the beach of Denmark and thus lots of experience with horses, in addition to lots of horsey connections, even more so since they are natives

Nokota Yearling Flya young Nokota in a “Jet Stall”  (as they call the canisters) on her way to Europe

of Germany.  They contacted us last winter after seeing a documentary including Nokotas® on German public radio, visited in May when they grew even more smitten with the breed, and returned in September to stay with their horses during the last week and a half of their 30 day quarantine while preparing them for the long journey home, together, via a 747-400 combi to Amsterdam Schiphol Airport.  Just last night we had another email saying how happy they are with their new Nokotas®, that they are really coming to feel at home and growing so sociable and, as is characteristic, think before they act and thus are even more enjoyable to interact with J  They are thinking of these Nokotas® as their personal horses, but at the same time eager to do more promotion in a part of Europe that has seen little to nothing of Nokotas® but which has a great interest in western history and heritage, so we are sure that this will lead to even more impressed individuals who can help the breed further itself 😀

  1.  The economy sucks.  Probably not a big surprise, but it is a bit surprising that the energy barons making a killing in North Dakota right now have yet to show any interest in preserving this North Dakota heritage.  Land prices have literally, without exaggeration, increased from a range of $167 to $300 an acre when I first travelled to ND in 2000 to the point where you probably can’t find anything for under $600 an acre today and some land is selling for over $2000 per acre!  Naturally that has drove up hay and feed prices and made everything more difficult for the nucleus of the Nokota® herd there, and although the Nokota® Horse Conservancy (NHC) just had a good few weeks on the east coast with a young horse starting clinic and the Massachusetts Equine Affaire it is struggling amid decreased donations and increased costs.  The Conservancy’s herd numbers over 100 individuals and we have reduced prices greatly and even offered a few for free, so the silver lining is that it is a good time to get a Nokota® if you have been sitting on the fence,, but there are many Conservancy individuals of very rare and important bloodlines which can either only go to homes dedicated to at least occassional breeding (which surely does not need to interfere much with using, our “tractor” probably only got all the tougher with motherhood and seems amused to pull hay home for her boys to share), or which really should stay in the NHC.  But at the same time we have severely reduced matings due to the economy so that the combined 2012/2013 foal crop will probably only number 3 youngsters to the most dangerously rare bloodlines.

SH Porphan 0606-10 (1)Porphan, a previous sponsorship foal who is now grown & available for purchase from the NHC as a laid back, amiable gelding

  1. Meanwhile  we are offering new sponsorship options, and I will be a big part of writing those; they are awesome holiday gifts with the personal bio of “your” horse and knowledge that your money is helping living history to thrive and touch ever more lives, and for a certain level of sponsorship you can even choose to name a young Nokota®!  So if you would like to participate please do not hesitate to email me directly, the new page is not yet complete on the NHC website but coming soon and I have already started making bios 😀
  2. Western Horseman ran a shoddy (at best) article on Nokotas®.  It is hard to understand how a reporter who travelled the whole way to the scene can end up writing about speculation instead of what he actually saw, or how he can quote a “local” who has only had his riding business in Theodore Roosevelt National Park for a few years and thus knows little to nothing of real “parkies” like he is some sort of supposed expert.  The horses hanging around his part of the park have long been among the most influenced by the introductions, while the wildest groups hang to the opposite and most secluded east side.  And even worse to misrepresent instead of rely on Castle’s research, which was commissioned by the Theodore Roosevelt Nature and History Association itself.  So I recommend reading the responses here:

Knowledge is not knowledge until it is shared

I have received many excellent and interesting Nokota® related questions over the years that have led me to deeper discovery, so it is my aspiration to share many of those while drawing upon my education in agricultural education so as to help us all do things better, and cheaper J  And as with other freely shared information, like the admirable Wikipedia, when you benefit and have the chance please give to the Nokota® Horse Conservancy: there are many different fun ways that make great gifts for others, too, and the simplest is membership at only $50 annually with the benefit of the NHC’s own newsletter with even more fun and helpful info:

Strong Smelling Urine:

The characteristic smell associated with urine originates in its nitrogen content, and that is in turn an indication of protein digestion because proteins contain nitrogen.  And animal can break down proteins to release life sustaining energy, but this is actually a less efficient, and from the body’s perspective desirable, energy source than fats or carbohydrates (within reason of course, as too much of anything is a problem).  When protein is metabolized for energy the nitrogen is broken away and excreted from the body as urea, which is familiar to farmers as fertilizer and originates from the same Latin base word as urine because it is a primary and important constituent.  In addition to being a less desirable energy source, proteins are also typically among the most expensive components of feed and nitrogen one of the greatest “pollutants” in excrement that is not properly recycled though the ecosystem, so from every perspective it is always best to supply just a little bit more than needed, which for a horse isn’t so tough or complicated.

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, so when they enter the discussion it has only become even more specific but is still all about protein.  Horses can manufacture many of their own amino acids, but some are termed “essential” because they must come from the diet: they can not be generated in the body from others.  You can think of these essential amino acids kinda like the wheels in a set of legos: they ultimately limit how many vehicles you can build and thus control the amount of activity.  Non-essential amino acids are like the lego blocks, you can put two smaller ones together to make a bigger one and rearrange them rather freely to suit demand when building, but one thing you can’t make with them is more wheels and thus no matter how many blocks you have you still are stymied from building cars, and this is often the case with proteins when a horse’s diet may be 30% protein, for example, but could just as well only be 11% protein because an essential amino acid is only available to build 11% complete proteins as are found in muscle tissue.  That other 19% is simply high cost yet inefficient energy, at best, and extra urea rich pee.

Among a total of ten essential amino acids there are several of primary concern in the equine world: foremost Lysine, followed by probably Threonine, and Methionine. I capitalized them for a reason: a lot of the science of feeding efficiently comes down to them and this is also true of humans; hence traditional diets pairing legumes with grasses like those of many American Indians who routinely paired corn, beans, and squash together because these give a balanced and complete source of amino acids even without meat.

Long story short, it is pretty apparent that mother nature/God/evolution/all of the above did not plan for any type of grain to be a major portion of any equids diet.  “Grain” can be a vague term, but the entire grass family in general is deficient to very deficient in Lysine and Threonine, although if you extend the definition of grain beyond what is technically correct and the grasses to include such seeds as amaranth you can find some rather balanced protein sources but this is prohibitively expensive for most horses even if a culinary delicacy for humans, plus it is complicating things too much.

Legumes are a very diverse and successful family of plants with the clever adaptation of being able to form a mutually beneficial relationship with rhizobia bacteria, which in exchange for carbohydrates manufactured by the plant “fix” nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form that the plant can actually utilize.  This is why legumes naturally can thrive in brutal nutrient deprived places, like the sand of beaten beach or leached out desert.  This is also why legumes are characteristically high in protein, and more specifically to our discussion, Lysine & Threonine: they have a more reliable and ready supply of nitrogen from which to build these.

I have heard it said time and again that horses are primarily grass eaters, and it is true that they can survive better than many animals on just grass because even if their digestive system is less efficient than a cow’s it is also faster, so they can push much larger quantities of low quality forage through their system in the same amount of time and thus prosper in places like the arid US southwest or the steppes of Mongolia under conditions that would starve most cows.  Nonetheless, everywhere I have watched horses graze freely they have shown a strong preference for a much greater variety than just grasses and a strong draw to many legumes, in addition to other “weeds” and even if grass is the majority of their diets it certainly does not define them to the exclusion of these other very important nutrient sources.  I firmly believe that horses, and especially breeds so close to nature as the Nokotas®, very much know what they need and will seek out a balanced diet if given free range and allowed to make their own choices.  In North Dakota the Nokotas have a strong preference for the legumes including common clovers, sweet clovers, prairie clovers, medics, milk vetches, tipsin/breadroot, and of course the well known exotic, alfalfa.  So to me the common deficiency of Lysine and Threonine is due to human interference in relying too much on grasses.

But considering grasses more closely, as they grow and mature protein content is essentially ever further diluted among a larger amount of foliage, and later concentrated in the seed and even degrades in the rest of the plant.  Early in the grazing season some grasses, like the infamous quack grass (Agropyron repens a.k.a Triticum repens a.k.a Elymus repens can muster close to 20% protein and thus be well above ample for nearly any horse’s needs.  Conversely, the well known and at times excessively esteemed Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis) can also reach and even top 20% protein, but also drop to only 3.3% when overripe, and straw, which is indeed a valuable warming fuel in frigid weather (another article to come) is often only 3-4% protein and of that only about 10% really is digestible and useful.

National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United
       States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
       772 p.  [1731]
nutritional information for fresh, aerial parts of Kentucky bluegrass during various growth stages:

% Protein    % Ash   % Crude Fiber   % N-free Extract

growth stage      (N x 6.25)

immature             17.5        9.4        25.4             44.2

early bloom          16.6        7.1        27.4             44.9

mid-bloom             13.2        7.6        29.2             46.1

milk stage           11.6        7.3        30.3             47.2

dough stage           9.5        6.6        34.8             46.0

mature                9.5        6.2        32.2             49.0

over ripe             3.3        6.3        42.1             47.0

Hard exercise does indeed increase protein demands because it literally involves the shearing of some muscle tissues which need to be rebuilt, and naturally lactation and growth depend upon protein whereas advanced age leads to inefficiencies and thus increased needs.  But it is important to keep in mind that horses were designed to be extreme athletes and that we may have different definitions of “hard exercise”.  Excessive protein can actually hurt athletic performance because protein really isn’t the preferred fuel source and needs to be dealt with one way or another, and even just excreting the excess as a waste product requires work including increased urination and thus takes something away from other bodily processes, in addition to making pee extra stinky and soiling more bedding material  And even worse, these problems with excessive protein can still occur when a horse is deficient in protein because only one essential amino acid is limiting and others are in excess.  So in future articles we will go more into depth about the specific amino acids and how to most efficiently optimize their balances for the best performance and least waste… but in short diversity with some legumes is a simple answer, and often horses will show us if we observe.  In the meantime it feels like such a weighty discussion needs to likewise be broken down into digestible chunks 😉

Yet the idea is always that anyone can email me with individual queries, comments, recommendations, corrections, etc: I look forward to the opportunity to learn more together!  And towards sharing what can be of greater benefit.  So please do not hesitate to share and forward this wider, and if you have not received it directly but would like to simply email me at and I can add you to the email list J

Likewise, visitors are always welcome, whether in North Dakota where I can give you a personal tour in late May until the annual meeting but know that Frank & Leo always appreciate guests, too, or if you really have a wild hair and don’t mind a humble home and farm that are very much still works in progress here in northern Sweden.

I know our website is outdated and need to work on it, but it still has maps and other fun stuff 😉

Disclaimer:  There is always a strong chance that I don’t know what I am talking about, and these views are entirely my own and not in any way necessarily reflective of those of the Nokota® Horse Conservancy or any other individual.  Read widely, seek multiple opinions, and think freely 😀  I know that this will be read by many who are more wise, educated, and experienced in a multitude of ways than myself and look forward to their responses, even if they contradict me, so please do not hesitate!


Grå Törnskata, our fully foundation mare of only 144cm and maybe 400 kilos (880lbs) bringing home a haylage bale from a farm better than 3 kilometers distant April 2013 with our children in tow.  Helen Thorstensson is training in a soon to be 3 year old foundation mare, Dagsmeja, and Emma Zeigler took the photo.

Grå Törnskata, our fully foundation mare of only 144cm and maybe 400 kilos (880lbs) bringing home a haylage bale from a farm better than 3 kilometers distant April 2013 with our children in tow. Helen Thorstensson is training in a soon to be 3 year old foundation mare, Dagsmeja, and Emma Zeigler took the photo.

Ålder och erfarenhet/Age and experience

Grå Törnskata (Skata) är åtta år. När jag var åtta år roterade min värld kring pastellfärgade My Little Pony, skolans läseböcker och att klättra träd. Och att längta till julafton förstås. Skata må vara vår lilla ponny med sina styvt 145 cm i mankhöjd, men förutom en sprudlande lekfullhet är det inte mycket likheter mellan den åttaåriga hästen och det åttaåriga barnet. Skata har vid sin till synes blygsamma ålder redan hunnit uppleva fem pinande vintrar på North Dakotas prärie, där blåsten aldrig tycks sluta piska snön mot frostnupna mular. Hon har med bravur klarat en omställning från orörd vildhäst till ett liv som tamhäst via totalt nya erfarenheter som en nio timmars flygresa och hon är nu den mest pålitliga i vår svenska lilla Nokotahjord. Hon har fött två perfekta fölungar och uppfostrat dem till ett par kloka och trygga unghästar. Hon har också lärt sig att bära människor på sin rygg och dra tunga lass med sann arbetsglädje. Framförallt har Skata övervunnit långt fler av sina medfödda, instinktiva rädslor än man kunde tro möjligt för ett flyktdjur, fött och uppvuxet i vilt tillstånd. Ibland när jag pratar med bekanta om Skatas bedrifter kallar jag henne kort och gott ”hästen”. Men det jag menar är Hästen. Med stort H. Även i en grupp av så många fantastiska individer som den vi har i vår hage.

Skatas första bal. Skata's first bale.

Skatas första bal. Skata’s first bale.

När jag idag, med nästintill fyra gånger högre ålder än Skatas, ser på henne är det med högaktning inför den erfarna, visa, trygga utstrålning hon glöder av och jag känner att jag själv alltid kommer ligga långt efter hennes mognad oavsett hur många fler år jag får uppleva. Varför är det så? Jag har ju trots allt också upplevt många vintrar, såväl kroppsligt som mentalt, och rest har jag gjort till mer än min beskärda del. Jag har också två barn och haft arbeten där jag ibland fått slita hårt. Men ändå känner jag mig så liten intill Skata. Kanske är det hennes absoluta närvaro som är skillnaden. För henne liksom för alla hästar är det här och nu som räknas och hon lever varje sekund av sitt liv. Till skillnad från mig själv, som allt för ofta genom livet glömt bort nuet i mitt bekymmer över det som varit och inte varit.

Skata som femåring på North Dakotas prärie, där vinden blåser sommar som vinter. Five-year-old Skata on the North Dakota prairie where the wind blows summer and winter.

Skata som femåring på North Dakotas prärie, där vinden blåser sommar som vinter.
Five-year-old Skata on the North Dakota prairie where the wind blows summer and winter.

Läs gärna mer om Grå Törnskata på hennes egen sida som nu blivit uppdaterad!


Grå Törnskata (Grey Shrike), or Skata as we usually call her, is eight years old. When I was eight years old, my world circled around My Little Pony, schools first books and tree climbing, and longing for Christmas, of course. Skata may be our little pony with her mere 14.2 hands high, but except for her exuberant playfulness, that’s about the only similarity between her and the eight-year-old child. Skata has at her seemingly shy age already experienced five winters on the North Dakota prairie where the wind never seems to stop whipping the snow up into the frost bit muzzles of shaggy ponies. She has successfully gone from an untouched wild horse to a life as a domestic horse, some of the travel being by totally unknown experiences such as a nine hour flight and is now the most reliable of our Swedish little Nokota herd. She has foaled two perfect colts and has raised them to become two wise and secure young horses. She has also learned to carry people on her back and to pull heavy loads, always with true joy. Most importantly, Skata has conquered far more of the fears that she was born with than one could imagine possible for a flight animal, born and raised in the wild. Sometimes when talking with friends about her accomplishments I just call her “the horse”. But what I actually mean is The Horse. Even in a herd of so many marvelous individuals as the ones we have in our pasture.

Vintertid är tuff tid för hästar på prärien, med ont om naturligt vindskydd. Winter time is tough time for ponies on the prairie where natural wind protection is sparse.

Vintertid är tuff tid för hästar på prärien, med ont om naturligt vindskydd.
Winter time is tough time for ponies on the prairie where natural wind protection is sparse.

When I look at Skata today, with my nearly four times as great age, it is with awe of the experienced, wise, comforting aura that she glows of and I get a feeling that I, myself, will always be far behind her maturity no matter how many more years I will get to experience. Why is that so? After all, I have also seen many winters, physically and mentally, and “of travel I’ve had my share, Man”(from the song “I’ve been everywhere” by G. Mack, sung by many, including Johnny Cash). I also have two children and have had jobs where I sometimes had to work hard. But still I feel so little next to Skata. Perhaps the difference is in her absolute consciousness. As for all horses, all that matters for Skata is here and now and she lives every second of her life. Where I, myself, way too often through life have forgotten about now in my concern about what has and has not yet been.

Please do read more about Skata on her own page that has now been updated!

"Admire the tall, ride the small". But Skata we both admire and ride, and she'll get a person anywhere.

“Admire the tall, ride the small”
But Skata we both admire and ride, and she’ll get a person anywhere.


De allra flesta unga hingstar drömmer nog om att en dag vara ledare i gänget. Redan som mycket unga börjar träningen inför att en dag (eventuellt om vi ska vara realistiska) nå toppen och när de når två-treårsåldern är likheterna med den mänskliga tonåren tydliga. Det ska plockas och grejas, lekarna är viktiga, det finns aldrig ett dåligt tillfälle att inleda ett lekfullt bråk och så är det förstås viktigt att visa upp sig rent visuellt. Våra unghingstar Blå Åskhök och Blixt Linus är inga undantag. De kan verka beskedliga vid första anblick då de båda inte är i kontakt med ston och är lugna pojkar som ägnar mesta energin åt att äta, men så blir tillslut frestelsen att retas för stor.

Ståtliga som Popper här, vill nog de allra flesta hingstar framstå. Proud like Popper here most stallions probably want to appear.

Ståtliga som Popper här, vill nog de allra flesta hingstar framstå.
Proud like Popper here most stallions probably want to appear.

Leder man exempelvis ut dem en sväng så känner man snart hur någon drar lite i repet. Men inte för att de är istadiga och inte vill gå, utan för att de helt enkelt plockat upp repet med munnen så de kan låtsas att det är de som är ute och går med oss. Går man ut med båda samtidigt kan man se många tysta, men tydliga gliringar slängas dem emellan. Som om de båda retar varandra för att de blivit fångade och följer oss. Seth tycker om att verka våra hästars hovar ute i hagen och hos stona är det inga större problem förutom att många av de andra kommer fram och nära för att pocka på vår uppmärksamhet, men när Blå och Linus skulle verkas i veckan var det med andra planer som den andre höll sig nära. Här kom nämligen ett utmärkt tillfälle att vara riktigt retlig. För vilket tillfälle till att retas är bättre än när den andre är fasthållen och dessutom med ett ben i luften? Så när Blå verkades, envisades Linus med att komma fram och småbita Blå och vice versa när det var Linus tur att verkas, naturligtvis. Efteråt gick de lugnt bort för att äta. Kanske de retades lika mycket med oss som varandra!

Man kan inte missa en chans att retas med en försvarslös. Can't miss an opportunity to pick on somebody defenseless.

Man kan inte missa en chans att retas med en försvarslös.
Can’t miss an opportunity to pick on somebody defenseless.

Vi har några hingstar i olika åldrar kvar i North Dakota och i de stora flockarna med unga respektive äldre hingstar som de går i är det oftast något på gång. Man ser i stort sett aldrig några allvarliga bråk men att det finns rangordningar som ska säkerställas är tydligt, särskilt när det kommit in någon ny i flocken. Det nosas med kraftiga blås med krökta, utsträckta halsar för att fortsätta i mer fysiska yttringar, som det klassiska styrkeprovet stegringen, mot varandra. Eller bett, ofta mot antingen övre delen av bakbenen eller sidan av halsen. Krökta nackar och hög, luftig “uppvisningstrav” eller en ren jakt på den andre. Alla tämligen imponerande och magnifika i den betraktande människans öga.

Jag är störst! I'm taller than you!

Jag är störst! Treåriga Ignatius till vänster.
I’m taller than you! Three-year-old Ignatius to the left

Det finns dock även beteenden som nog vi människor och hingstarna (eller stona för den delen) upplever lite olika. Ett annat styrkeprov är nämligen att rumpa mot rumpa trycka med all sin kraft mot den andre och skrika med den mest gälla röst man kan åstadkomma. Hingstarna märker sina revir med sin spillning och även i flocken med enbart hingstar används detta som ett styrkeprov. Finns det någon att imponera på så görs detta bäst genom att göra en hög på en annan hög och sedan backa över den och ljudligt lukta på sin skapelse, gärna samtidigt som man skrapar i marken med en framhov. Detta kan se märkligt ut i mänskliga ögon, men är på fullt allvar och “hingsthögarna” har faktiskt ett annat, oväntat ändamål. Under riktigt svåra vintrar på prärien då vildhästarna inte kunde finna tillräckligt med föda kunde hingsthögarna tjäna som en sista utväg, då hästars spillning är så pass fiberrik att de kunde överleva genom att äta den och högarna var relativt lätta att hitta under snön.

Läs gärna mer om Blå Åskhök på hans egna sida under “Hingstar/Stallions” som nu har uppdaterats.


Most young stallions probably dream of one day being the leader of the band. Already when very young the training towards one day (possibly, to be realistic) reaching the top begins and as two and three years old the similarities with human teenagers are clear. It’s a lot of picking and carrying on, games are important, there’s never a wrong moment to initiate a play fight and of course it’s important to show off, visually. Our young stallions Blå Åskhök and Blixt Linus are no exceptions. They can seem modest at first sight since they are usually not in contact with mares and are calm boys that put most of their energy into eating, but so eventually the temptation to tease get too large.

Blå och Linus är oftast goda vänner. Blå och Linus are most of the time good friends.

Blå och Linus är oftast goda vänner.
Blå och Linus are most of the time good friends.

For example, when leading them out for a little walk one will soon notice some pulling on the rope. It is not because they are being stubborn about going, however, but because they simply are picking up the rope with their mouths so they can perhaps pretend they are out walking us. If we go out with them both together we can see a lot of soundless, but obvious taunting them between the two, as if both of them are picking on the other for being caught and following us. Seth prefers to trim our horses’ feet out in the pasture and in the group of mares this is usually no problem aside for some of the others coming up close to get our attention, but when Blå and Linus were to be trimmed last week it was with ulterior motives that the other horse stayed close.  What can be a better opportunity to tease than when your friend is caught and standing with one leg in the air? So when Blå was being trimmed, Linus kept coming up to nip on Blå and vice versa when Linus was getting trimmed, of course. Afterwards they both left calmly to graze. Perhaps they were picking on us just as much as each other!

Pojkar är ändå pojkar och gillar allt på hjul. Boys are still boys, though, and like everything on wheels

Pojkar är ändå pojkar och gillar allt på hjul.
Boys are still boys, though, and like everything on wheels

We have some stallions in different ages still in North Dakota and in the two large groups of older and respectively younger stallions something is usually going on. You hardly ever see any serious fights but that there are ranks to be decided upon is clear, especially when someone new enters the group. There’s sniffing with loud blows, crested and stretched necks to continue with more physical manifestations, such as rearing, the classical symbol of strength. Or biting, often at the other’s upper hind legs or side of the neck. Crested necks and elastic “show trot” or simply a chase after the other. All pretty impressive and magnificent in the eyes of the watching human.

Kiche och Kugelblitz gör upp rangordningen genom frustningar med välvda halsar. Our Kiche and Kugelblitz settle the hierarchy with loud blows and crested necks.

Kiche och Kugelblitz gör upp rangen genom frustningar och välvda halsar.
Kiche and Kugelblitz settle the hierarchy with loud blows and crested necks.

There are, however, also behaviours that we humans and the stallions (and mares for that matter) view somewhat differently. For another show of strength is to, butt to butt, push on the other with all power and shriek with the most high-pitched voice one can muster. The stallions mark their territory with their droppings and also in the group of boys only this is used as a test of strength. If there’s anyone around to impress then this is best done by making a pile, back over it to then sniff it, preferably while scraping the ground with one front hoof. This may look strange in human eyes, but it is completely serious and the “stud piles” actually also serve a different, unexpected purpose. During really harsh winters when food for the wild horses was scarce, the stud piles could serve as a last resort, since horse droppings have enough fiber that the horses could survive by eating it and the piles are fairly easy to find under the snow.

More information about Blå can be found on his own page under “Hingstar/Stallions”.

Rumpa mot rumpa visar Rustler i mitten vad han går för. Rustler in the middle shows his strength through his butt.

Rumpa mot rumpa visar Rustler i mitten vad han går för.
Rustler in the middle shows his strength through his butt.

En god mor/A good mother

En del märrar blir alldeles uppslukade av sina föl, nästintill bokstavligt talat dessutom. Vår Lootah Akecheta är en sådan fölmärr. Hon är den äldsta av våra ston som vi har i Sverige, dock inte mer än tio år så hon har åtminstone lika många fler år att ge. Lootah är också den mest beresta av våra ston. Hon har tagit sig från North Dakota till Minnesota, tillbaka till North Dakota för att sedan göra en sejour till Colorado och Texas innan hon var åter i North Dakota och sedan slutligen flyttade till Sverige. Men nu får det vara slut på resandet för hennes del och hon ska i lugn och ro få göra det hon gör allra bäst, nämligen föda upp föl. Det goda mödraskapet ligger i Lootahs gener. Hennes egen moder, Keen Red, var ett av de mer produktiva ston som kom till Kuntz Ranch från Theodore Roosevelt National Park. För alltför många av stona som ringades in och avlägsnades från nationalparken blev traumat och omställningen stor och de fick sedan endast enstaka föl, en del inga. Men Keen Red, som avlägsnades som ung år 1986 lämnade många fina avkommor, däribland NHC-hingsten Dark Warrior och vår egen Sharpshinned Hawk (Sharpie) och Lootah, förstås.

Sin moders dotter. Lootah ärvde också den röda färgen från Keen Red. A mother's daughter. Lootah also inherited her red color from Keen Red.

Sin moders dotter. Lootah ärvde också den röda färgen från Keen Red.
A mother’s daughter. Lootah also inherited her red color from Keen Red.

Lootah kom dräktig till Sverige efter en lång sommar på prärien i NHC-hingsten Last Targets band. Som den förutseende moder hon är tog hon sig genast an den svenska menyn och var aldrig sen till utfodringarna och växte följaktligen i omfång. Hon var blev den sista av våra ston på gården att få sitt föl det året men det var ett välväxt föl och så fortsatte det. För fölet, för nu var det modern Lootah som tog över och allt skulle ges till fölet och den runda Lootah blev snabbt allt slankare, likt jag själv, Emma, efter att jag fått barn. Denna typ av märrar är otroliga på att ge till sina föl, man kan ge dem extra foder och fölet blir allt mer sälformad, medan ingen skillnad syns på märren. Även mentalt förändrades Lootah, från en ganska självständig indvid till att enbart finnas för fölet och även om hennes fina föl vägde upp det hela så är det ändå lite tufft att se henne förvandlas till en skugga av sig själv.

Som en skugga av sig själv, men den bästa av mödrar. Like a shadow of herself, but the best of mothers.

Som en skugga av sig själv, men den bästa av mödrar.
Like a shadow of herself, but the best of mothers.

Förändringen tillbaka till hästen Lootah var snabb så fort fölet avvänjdes efter ca åtta månader. Rätt vad det var fanns den där glimten i ögat igen och formerna blev återigen runda, men hon saknade sitt föl och hade nog helst sett att hon aldrig skulle behöva skiljas från det. Nu går de tillsammans igen och Lootah började efter flera veckor borta från fölet producera mjölk igen och den numer fyllda ettåringen diar ännu. Dock måste mjölken vara rätt blaskig vid det här laget för Lootah har hållt sig rund och slutligen blev vi nog alla rätt nöjda med situationen. Mor, dotter och ägare.

Se även gärna den just uppdaterade sidan om Lootah under “Ston/Mares”.


Some mares are all about their foals, and give their foals their all. Our Lootah Akecheta is one of those mares. She is the oldest of our mares that we have in Sweden, although not more than ten years old and thus has at least as many more years to give. Lootah is also the most widely travelled of our mares. She has gone from North Dakota to Minnesota, back to North Dakota to then make a trip to Colorado and Texas before she got back to North Dakota and then finally moved to Sweden. But this will have to be the end of travelling for her so she can peacefully do what she does best, to raise foals. The good motherhood lays in Lootah’s genes. Her own mother, Keen Red, was one of the more productive mares that came to Kuntz Ranch from Theodore Roosevelt National Park. To way too many of the mares that were rounded up and removed from the park the trauma and readjustment were too big and they later only had few foals, some none. But Keen Red, who was removed as young in 1986, left many fine offspring, there among the NHC-stallion Dark Warrior and our own Sharpshinned Hawk (Sharpie) and Lootah, of course.

Lootah idag, med den karaktäristiska Nokota®tovan. Lootah today, with the characteristic Nokota® dread lock.

Lootah idag, med den karaktäristiska Nokota®tovan.
Lootah today, with the characteristic Nokota® dread lock.

Lootah arrived pregnant to Sweden after a long summer on the prairie in the NHC-stallion Last Target’s band. As the forseeing mother she is, she immediately adapted to the Swedish menu and was never late to feedings and accordingly grew in bulk. She was the last of our mares to have her foal that year but it was a well grown foal and so it continued. For the foal, because now it was mother Lootah who was in charge and everything was given to the foal and the round Lootah quickly got thinner, like myself, Emma after I had my kids. This type of mares are incredible at giving their foals their all, one gives the mare extra feed and the foal gets chubbier while the mare stays the same. Also mentally Lootah was changed, from a rather independent individual to only exist for the foal and even if the lovely foal was good to see, it was also hard to see Lootah being turned into mere a shadow of herself.

En minst sagt högdräktig Lootah. A quite pregnant Lootah.

En minst sagt högdräktig Lootah.
A quite pregnant Lootah.

The transformation back to the horse Lootah was fast as soon as the foal was weaned after about eight months. All the sudden the spark came back to her eyes and she got rounder again, but she missed her foal and would probably rather never had been separated from it. Now they are back together again and Lootah started giving milk again after several weeks apart from the foal and the now yearling is still nursing. But at least the milk must be rather watery by now for Lootah has stayed in good shape and finally we all probably got pretty happy with the situation. Mother, daughter and owners.

Lootah’s own page under “Ston/Mares” has now also been updated for further information.


Mina föräldrar hade båda ett naturintresse av stora mått och tog mig och mina bröder på många utflykter för att uppleva naturens under, små som stora. Jag tyckte alltid det var härligt att komma ut på olika håll i naturen även om jag växte upp på gårdar nära den samma och det intresset har hållit i sig genom livet och lett mig till olika arbeten, utbildningar och även Seth. Men det fanns en sak som liksom alltid grumlade upplevelsen med barndomens utflykter en smula. Något som alltid verkade dyka upp när jag var som mest mätt på naturens under och bara ville hem, eller som alltid manade mina föräldrar att vilja gå en bit till när min mage kurrade och jag ville ha fika. Orkidéer. Orkidéer, orkidéer, orkidéer… vita, rosa, gula, med prickar, utan prickar, två-blad och nycklar, SUCK, var min juvenila själs svar. Ibland åkte vi iväg med orkidéer som huvudsyfte, ibland lyckades de nästla sig in i upplevelsen fast de inte stod på schemat.

Naturligtvis var det inte riktigt så illa, egentligen. Jag ville bara gärna tro det, det var väl en sådan sak när man går emot sina föräldrar bara för att. För det var med en väldig förtjusning som jag hittade ett par orkidéer på vår egen mark härom veckan. Jag hade sett dem runtomkring i närheten, men visste inte att de också växte i våra hästars hagar och det här var en härlig ny upplevelse!

En skir liten Jungfru Marie Nycklar i hästhagen A delicate little Moorland/Heath Spotted Orchid

En skir liten Jungfru Marie Nycklar i hästhagen
A delicate little Moorland/Heath Spotted Orchid


My parents both had a great interest for nature and brought my brothers and I on many trips to experience nature’s wonders, small and large. I always thought it was lovely to get to go to different places in nature, even if I grew up on farms, close itm and this interest has kept with me through life and led me to different jobs, education and also Seth. But there was one thing that always seemed to cloud the experience a tad bit. Something that seemed to appear whenever I was the most satisfied with nature’s wonders and just wanted to go home, or that always seemed to make my parents want to go further when my belly was growling and I just wanted to stop for lunch. Orchids. Orchids, orchids, orchids… white, pink, yellow, with spots, without spots, tway-blade and Dactylorhiza, SIGH, was my young souls reply. Sometimes we went with orchids as the main purpose of the trip, sometimes they just seemed to nestle themselves in into the experience even if the were not the plan.

Of course, it really wasn’t that bad. i just wanted to believe so, I guess it was just one of those times when a child goes against it’s parents just because. For it was with great joy that I found a couple orchids on our land just the other week. I had seen them around, nearby, but didn’t know that they grew in our horses’ pasture and this was a wonderful new experience!

/ Emma

Historiksidan uppdaterad/History page updated

Ett kort sammandrag av Nokota®hästarnas historia på svenska kan nu läsas på historiksidan under faktafliken här.


A short summary in Swedish of the Nokota® horses’ history can be found on the history page under “Fakta/Facts”. There you also find a link to the Nokota® Horse Conservancy’s review of the horses’ history.


Liggarboksteckning gjord av Sitting Bull. Gårdagens Nokota®?
Ledger Book drawing made by Sitting Bull. Yesterday’s Nokota®?

En färgjämförelse/A color comparison

Please scroll down for English…

Nu är det väl ändå dags att starta den här bloggen på riktigt. Vi har så mycket tankar om det som händer och vad vi ser omkring oss här på gården och tänker att kanske finns det någon mer som skulle uppskatta att ta del av dem, men det är lite “otäckt” ändå att börja skriva för då ska man ju fortsätta och därmed formulera alla dessa tankar.

Det är fortfarande mycket information som behöver komma upp på sidan och framför allt behövs nya bilder på hästarna. Vi har fina hästar och gott om vackra dagar att fota men ändå är det så svårt att få tillfälle till just sådant. En god vän, som också är keramiker och tycker om att teckna och måla beskrev hur han utifrån bilder vi visade tyckte att ljuset i Sverige verkade annorlunda jämfört med ljuset i North Dakota och sade att om han kunde sätta en färg på det så skulle det vara blågrönt. Jag hade aldrig formulerat tanken själv, men kunde inte annat än fullständigt hålla med. Ljuset här på Djuptodal är blågrönt och av en annan färg än i North Dakota där jag skulle beskriva ljuset som mer gyllene orange. Båda hisnande vackra.

En blå häst i ett blågrönt landskap. A blue horse in a blue green landscape.

En blå häst i ett blågrönt landskap.
A blue horse in a blue green landscape.

Uppenbarligen är då denna sidas omslagsbild från North Dakota och det är förstås lite ologiskt. Det finns gott om vackra vyer som skulle göra sig bra som omslagsbild också här i det magnifika Höga Kusten-området men trots allt är ännu majoriteten av våra hästar födda på prärien i North Dakota och det kändes lämpligt att kröna sidan med en bild som påminner om deras ursprung och skulle kunna ge en känsla av vad det är som format hästarna till det de är idag. Bilden är tagen alldeles intill Missouri River, ungefär 8 mil sydöst om Bismarck i en hage som Nokota® Horse Conservancy burkar arrendera. Ni kommer förmodligen få läsa mer om den hagen i kommande inlägg.


It sure is about time to start this blog for real. We have so many thoughts about what we see around us here on the farm and think there might be someone else who would appreciate to hear them. But also it is a little bit “scary” to start writing, for then one ought to continue and put words on all these thoughts.

There still is a lot of information that needs to be put on the site and, most of all, we need new photos of the horses. We have fine horses and lots of pretty days to photograph them but still it is so hard to find time for such things. A friend, who is a potter in Minneapolis, USA and also enjoys drawing and painting described how he from the pictures we sent him thought the light in Sweden seemed different than the light in North Dakota and if he could put a color on it, it would be blue green. I had never put words on that thought myself, but had to agree fully. The light here on Djuptodal is blue green and of a different color than in North Dakota where I would describe the light as more a golden orange. Both breathtaking.

En bit av det orangea i det blågröna. A piece of the orange within the blue green.

En bit av det orangea i det blågröna.
A piece of the orange within the blue green.

Obviously then, this banner phto is from North Dakota and that is of course not totally logical. There are plenty of marvellous views that would make great banners also here in the stunning High Coast-area but after all the majority of our horses are still born on the prairie of North Dakota and it seemed fitting to cap the site with a picture that is a reminder of their heritage and what made the horses what they are today. The picture is taken in one of the Nokota® Horse Conservancy’s leased pastures right by the Missouri River, some fifty miles southeast of Bismarck. You will probably hear more about that area in future posts.


Detta kommer med tiden bli en blogg/hemsida fylld av information om våra nokotahästar och deras hem här på Djuptodal i östra Ångermanland. Inläggen kommer skrivas på både svenska och engelska med den svenska versionen först. Men änsålänge har vi bara uppnått en mycket blygsam start och hoppas att ni återkommer framöver för mer!

This will with time become a site full of information about our nokota horses and their home here on Djuptodal farm in eastern Ångermanland, Sweden. Posts will be written in Swedish as well as English with the Swedish version first with a line of ~~~~~~ separating the languages. But so far, all it has reached is a very shy beginning and we hope you will check back in the future for more!